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Title: Concept study of an implantable microsystem for electrical resistance and temperature measurements in dairy cows, suitable for estrus detection
Author: Morais, Raul
Valente, A.
Almeida, José Carlos
Silva, Amélia M.
Soares, Salviano
Reis, M.J.C.S.
Valentim, Ramiro
Azevedo, Jorge
Keywords: Microsystem
Electrical resistivity sensor
Wireless interface
Estrus prediction
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Morais, Raul; Valente, A.; Almeida, J.C.; Silva, Amélia M.; Soares, Salviano; Reis, M.J.C.S.; Valentim, R.; Azevedo, J. (2006) - Concept study of an implantable microsystem for electrical resistance and temperature measurements in dairy cows, suitable for estrus detection. Sensors and Actuators A – Physical. ISSN 0924-4247. 132:1, p. 354-361
Abstract: In cattle breeding industry, where artificial insemination techniques are employed, the successful detection of estrus onset leads to considerable cost-saving in herd management. One of the most reliable approaches is based on the determination of progesterone concentration in milk. However, these methods rely on the biosensor concept where a biological substrate is used in a chemical-binding reaction to directly or indirectly produce some effect (electrical or light) that is used at the transducer level. These methods present several drawbacks concerning real-time measurements due to the complexity of the reactions involved and reagent/waste handling. Another approach is to combine measurements of temperature and electrical resistance of reproductive tissues to predict estrus. Using a low-power microsystem with wireless capabilities it is possible to take these measurements in situ and more frequently. The proposed microsystem comprises a second-order delta–sigma modulator for analog-to-digital conversion and a class-E radio-frequency (RF) transmitter operating in the ISM-band of 433MHz to transfer acquired data to a collar. Electrical resistance is measured by using a modifiedWenner array and temperature by the on-chip temperature sensor. System (including battery and antenna) package is made of a tissue-compatible material to allow implantation in the cow’s vulvar muscle. Since estrus prediction is based on relative changes of the two correlated parameters, calibration is not necessary. Some preliminary results regarding the measuring concept are presented.
Peer review: yes
ISSN: 0924-4247
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Appears in Collections:CA - Artigos em Revistas Indexados ao ISI/Scopus

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