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|Title: ||Nutrition and production systems of the "Bísaro" pig in the north-east region of Portugal|
|Authors: ||Carvalho, Marieta|
Animal production systems
|Issue Date: ||2000|
|Citation: ||Carvalho, Marieta (2000) - Nutrition and production systems of the "Bísaro" pig in the north-east region of Portugal. Options Mediterraneennes. Série A. ISSN 1016-121X. 41, p. 123-128|
|Series/Report no.: ||Série A. Seminaires Méditerranéens;41|
|Abstract: ||The main objective of this paper is to add to the store of knowledge about the alimentation and production systems of the “Bísaro” race of pig in the North-east Transmontano region of Portugal. The statistical sample taken covered 30% of the pig breeders of the Bísaro race: a total of 169 animals, divided up into the following categories: 22 boars, 41 pregnant sows, one sow in lactation, 19 pigs for fattening, 44 weaned piglets and 42 suckling piglets. This study was undertaken during the months from January to May of 1997.
After the conclusion of this study we discovered that the average number of breeding sows per pig breeder is 2.7 and the average number of boars is 1.4, giving a perspective of growth in effective reproduction in 67% of the pig breeders. We found that 40% of the pig production is for the purpose of consumption by the breeder, 20% is sold as live animals, 5% is for sale as whole carcass and the other 35% of the production goes into the making of the typical smoked sausage of the region, for later sale.
With regard to the reproductive aspects we found that the age with which the boar begins its breeding function is located between 7 and 8 months old for 74% of the pig breeders and that the boar is slaughtered from 1 year old up to 1.5 years old for 48% of the breeders, at 2 years old for 30% of the breeders and for the other 22% at 2.5 years old. The females are covered for the first time between 6 and 8 months of age in 95% of cases and are slaughtered either with the age of 1 to 1.5 years old (in 47% of the cases studied) or between 2 and 2.5 years old (the other cases). We found that 28% of the breeders get one litter per year, 64% two litters per year and 8% three litters in two years. The average number of piglets born per litter was as follows: less than 10 for 30% of the population, 10 for 26% of the population and more than 10 for 44% of the population. The weaning age varied between 30 and 75 days, the majority being weaned at 60 days (52% of the population).
As far as the housing of the pigs is concerned, we found that all the animals are kept in a system of permanent stabling. There are two kinds of habitation: the traditional “stalls” found under the house of the farmer (13%) or “stalls” built as an annex to the house (60%) and secondly, modern pigsties which comply with current legislation (27%). The first two have poor ventilation, little light and beds of straw or vegetation. The more recent pigsties are to be found far from the villages, have cement floors, good lighting, good ventilation and allow for good hygiene in the installations for the animals.
The alimentation of the pigs is very varied, depending on the season of the year. Their diet may contain the following: grain and flour of corn, wheat, rye and oats, potatoes, chestnuts, pumpkin, cabbages, beetroot, turnips, leftovers from meals and by-products of the kitchen such as potato, fruit and vegetable peels.|
|Peer Reviewed: ||yes|
|Appears in Collections:||CA - Artigos em Revistas Não Indexados ao ISI|
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