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|Title:||In vitro mycorrhization of micropropagated plants: studies on Castanea sativa Mill.|
|Citation:||Martins, A. (2008) Vitro Mycorrhization of Micropropagated Plants: Studies on Castanea sativa Mill. In: Siddiqui, Zaki Anwar; Akhtarm , Mohd. Sayeed; Futai, Kazuyoshi (editors) Mycorrhizae: Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-8769-1. p. 321-336.|
|Abstract:||In vitro mycorrhization can be made by several axenic and nonaxenic techniques but criticism exists about their artificiality and inability to reproduce under natural conditions. However, artificial mycorrhization under controlled conditions can provide important information about the physiology of symbiosis. Micropropagated Castanea sativa plants were inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius after in vitro rooting. The mycorrhizal process was monitored at regular intervals in order to evaluate the mantle and hartig net formation, and the growth rates of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Plant roots show fungal hyphae adhesion at the surface after 24 hours of mycorrhizal induction. After 20 days a mantle can be observed and a hartig net is forming although the morphology of the epidermal cells remains unaltered. At 30 days of root–fungus contact the hartig net is well developed and the epidermal cells are already enlarged. After 50 days of mycorrhizal induction, growth was higher for mycorrhizal plants than for nonmycorrhizal ones. The length of the major roots was lower in mycorrhizal plants after 40 days. Fresh and dry weights were higher in mycorrhizal plants after 30 days. The growth rates of chestnut mycorrhizal plants are in agreement with the morphological development of the mycorrhizal structures observed at each mycorrhizal time. The assessment of symbiotic establishment takes into account the formation of a mantle and a hartig net that were already developed at 30 days, when differences between fresh and dry weights of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants can be quantified. In vitro conditions, mycorrhization influences plant physiology after 20 days of root–fungus contact, namely in terms of growth rates. Fresh and dry weights, heights, stem diameter and growth rates increased while major root growth rate decreased in mycorrhizal plants.|
|Appears in Collections:||BB - Capítulo de Livros|
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